В этой статье попытаемся сравнить перспективные компании, занимающиеся производством и запуском космической техники. Space X и Роскосмос. На основе чего вы, если у нас получится, сможете сделать для себя некоторые выводы.

Форма собственности

Space X принадлежит Илону Маску (он CEO и главный инженер).

Роскосмос же государственная корпорация и здесь можно обнаружить некоторые тонкости: руководителя ГК назначает президент РФ, а значит существует вероятность некомпетентного решения в плане назначения.

Роскосмос отчитывается только перед Правительством РФ в виде ежегодных докладов, которые нигде не публикуются, потому что у ГК нет соответствующих обязательств. Роскосмос опубликовал на своем официальном сайте отчеты только за 2015, 2016, 2017 годы.

Капитал

Space X – информацию найти не удалось

Росокосмос (2017 год) — 148 095 млн ₽

Количество сотрудников и их зарплаты

В Space X работает больше 6.000 человек. Илон Маск не набирает много сотрудников, чтобы сохранять низкую стоимость запусков ракет. Средняя зарплата специалиста составляет от 145 до 353 тысяч долларов в год, что переводя на наши рубли, в МЕСЯЦ выходит – 780.000 тысяч рублей.

В Роскосмосе, с учетом всех подразделений, около 240.000 человек. И средняя зарплата – 49.9 тысяч рублей.

Сотрудничество

Space X заключила более 100 контрактов (доставка грузов, военные запуски и т.д. ).

Роскосмос сотрудничает с ЕС, СНГ, Соединенными Штатами, ЮАР. С NASA исследуется состав марсианского, лунного грунта для изучения водяного льда. В рамках программы МКС Роскосмос обеспечивает пребывание на станции экипажей МКС, обеспечивает эффективность использования МКС и многое другое. Подробнее здесь.

Успешные запуски

В 2017 году Space X реализовала 16 успешных гражданских пусков, тогда как Роскосмос всего 14. Но если учесть военные запуски, то счет будет равным — 18:18. Однако Роскосмос также совершил 2 успешных запуска в сотрудничестве с Европейским космическим агентством. Счет 18:20 в пользу Роскосмоса.

Но Роскосмос все равно проигрывает, потому что запуски ракет Илона Маска в несколько раз дешевле. Это было достигнуто благодаря использованию дешевых, устаревших двигателей с открытой системой (об этом здесь) и благодаря многократному использованию первых ступеней, очень дорогих и обычно теряемых.

Доли компаний и стран на рынке коммерческих запусков

Достигнутое

Если говорить о достигнутом этими компаниями, то можно отметить следующее:

Роскосмос теряет позиции и уходит с лидирующих позиций в космической индустрии, можно сказать, что она существует по инерции, за счет сохранившейся динамики после СССР. Полеты и исследования других планет в планах есть, но запланированы на очень поздние даты, в отличие от американского конкурента: Россия хочет доставлять на Луну людей с 2030 года, Space X в 2020 году отправит свой корабль на Марс, а до 2026 доставит туда человека.

Space X удалось в разы снизить стоимость запусков ракет за счет грамотного управления компанией и новых разработок (возвращаемые ступени).

Никита Мекаев
desavis@ya.ru
Редактор отдела «Конфликты»

Роскосмос vs. Space X: 241 комментарий

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